The DryDisk® Separation Membrane was designed to replace conventional sodium sulfate in the drying of sample extracts. The DryDisk® is a hydrophobic membrane, consisting of a GORETEX ® process filtration media based on polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE). The hydrophobic property of the membrane allows the extracting solvent to pass through it, while retaining any water in the sample extract on the membrane’s surface.
Effective removal of residual water from organic solvents is critical to achieve optimal recoveries for water soluble compounds. Sodium sulfate has been the standard technique for removing residual water from solvent extracts for many years; however, it has several major drawbacks. Water soluble analytes in the residual water phase can become adsorbed in the sodium sulfate, leading to lower recoveries.
In this application note, a suite of neutral and list 1 pesticides in methylene chloride is evaporated using the Biotage® DryVap. Pesticides containing many different functional groups, including sulfur and phosphorus groups, halides, nitramines, atrazines, alcohol, and carbonyl groups were efficiently concentrated for GCMS analysis. This data indicates that the DryVap System is inert and effectively manages solvent evaporation without generating localized hot spots in the system.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be found in a number of water types, such as drinking water, surface water, ground water and wastewater. There are serval types of extraction techniques that can be implemented to remove them from water for measurement including liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE). With LLE and CLLE there is little selectivity within the methods for difficult matrices or other compound interferences.
This study shows that the Biotage® 4790 Automated Extractor system, along with the Atlantic™ DVB disk, the DryDisk® separation membrane, and the DryVap® Concentrator System can be successfully used to analyze for Nonyl Phenol and Bisphenyl A in water samples. This sample preparation process is fully automated, requiring minimal human intervention, and allowing for reductions in sample processing costs.
EPA Method 1657 describes the procedure to determine low ppb levels of organophosphorous pesticides in wastewater. The disks compared in this study are: “Certified for Automation” Atlantic™ C18 (47 mm) and 3M Empore™ High Performance Extraction Disk C18 (47 mm).
4790 Application Notes Azinphos methyl Chlorpyrifos Demeton (O&S) Diazinon Disk Disulfoton EPA 1657 Analytes EPN English Environmental Ethion Ethyl parathion GC-FPD Malathion Methyl parathion Organophosphate Pesticide Waste water
EPA Method 608 describes the procedure to determine low parts per billion levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, toxaphene and chlordane in wastewater. The laboratory that collected the data presented in this application note uses EPA method 608 ATP3M0222 as the approved SPE technique for waste water extraction. The disks compared in this study are : “Certified for Automation” Atlantic™ C18 (47 mm) and 3M Empore™ High Performance Extraction Disk C18 (47 mm). Comparisons were made using side-by-side extraction and identical calibration parameters.
4,4,DDD 4790 Aldrin Application Notes DDE Dieldrin EPA 608 Analytes Endosulfan Endosulfan sulfate Endrin Endrin Aldehyde Endrin Ketone English Environmental GC/ECD Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxide Methoxychlor Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) PCB PCB1016 PCB1260 PCBs TCMX Waste water α-BHC β-BHC γ-BHC δ-BHC
EPA Method 525.2 describes the procedure to determine low ppb levels of semi-volatile organic material in drinking water using solid phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-solid extraction (LSE) techniques. The extraction solvents are methylene chloride and ethyl acetate. Extracts are analyzed by GC/MS using a splitless injection technique.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are found throughout the environment and are recognized as a serious health threat. They accumulate in animals and plants and become more concentrated as they progress up the food chain. PCBs can be found in the fatty tissues of human populations in all industrial countries, and they can be passed from mother to fetus through the placenta and to an infant through breast milk. They have been introduced into the environment mainly through the use of Aroclor products.
Hormones in drinking water are a growing concern, since the presence of these compounds can potentially be linked to serious health hazards such as human developmental and reproductive side-effects. Hormones are introduced into our environment in several ways. Natural and synthetic hormones that are given to livestock, pass though the animals, runoff into surface water, and leach into underground water supplies. Humans also produce and excrete natural hormone waste every day.
At present, pollution of freshwater algae has become aglobal environmental problem. Of all the different pollution types, microcystin LR is the most toxic and the most acute hazard as far as is known presently
This application note was developed to demonstrate the extraction of five organophosphate compounds Monocrotophos, Diazinon, Malathion, EPN, and Methamidophos using one solid phase extraction method with one pre-treatment step of sodium chloride (NaCl). The method uses the Biotage® Horizon 4790 automated SPE extraction system. It will show the efficiency of the extraction while demonstrating excellent recoveries of OPP compounds using methylene chloride and minimal amounts of acetone after sample pre-treatment with sodium chloride. Methods were developed and results are shown using 47 mm Atlantic® HLB-H disks and carbon cartridges.
Method 525.2 describes the procedure to determine a full suite of low concentration semi-volatile organic compounds in drinking water using solid phase extraction (SPE) or liquid–solid extraction (LSE) techniques. The City of Fort Worth, Water Department implemented an automated SPE process for the analysis of semi-volatiles by EPA Method 525.2 using the Atlantic® C18 solid phase extraction disk. Ethyl acetate, methanol and water were used to condition the Atlantic C18 disk prior to the extraction step. The extraction solvents used were a 1:1 mixture of methylene chloride and ethyl acetate. Extracts were then analyzed by GC/MS using a splitless injection technique.
Acenaphthylene Alachlor Aldrin Alpha-Chlordane Anthracene Application Notes Atrazine Benzo (a) Anthracene Benzo (b) fluoranthene Benzo (g,h,i) perylene Benzo (k) Fluoranthene Benzo(a)pyrene Bromacil Butylbenzylphthalate Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Di-n-butylphthalate Dibenz (a,h) Anthracene Diethyl phthalate Dimethylphosphate (DMP) Disk Drinking water Endrin English Environmental GC-MS Gamma-BHC Gamma-Chlordane Heptachlor Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Indeno (1,2,3-cd) Pyrene Methoxychlor Metolachor Organic Compounds Pentachlorophenol Phenanthrene Prometon Propachlor Pyrene Simazine Trans-nonachlor Trifluralin
The City of Fort Worth, Water Department conducted an evaluation of the Atlantic™ solid phase extraction (SPE) C18 disks using EPA Method 608. This application note describes the procedure to determine low ppb levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in wastewater. This procedure used methylene chloride as the primary extraction solvent, followed by a hexane solvent exchange. Extracts were then analyzed by GC/ECD using a pressure pulse injection technique.
4,4,DDD 4790 Aldrin Application Notes DDE Disk EPA 608 Analytes Endosulfan Endosulfan sulfate Endrin Endrin Aldehyde Endrin Ketone English Environmental GC/ECD Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxide Methoxychlor Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) Organochlorines PCB PCB1016 PCB1260 PCBs TCMX US EPA Method 608.3 Waste water α-BHC β-BHC γ-BHC δ-BHC
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, naturally occurring in coal, crude oil, gasoline, and their byproducts (e.g. coal tar or creosote). In addition, PAHs are formed in the incomplete combustion processes of all organic materials, such as wood or fossil fuels. Consequently, the EU water framework directive (WFD) lists in its annex X the whole group of PAHs as priority hazardous substances.
This application note demontrates that the Biotage® fully automated extraction, drying and concentration systems used with the Atlantic™ HLB disk are capable of extracting PAH compounds from sea water. Typical extraction times using the Biotage® Horizon 4790 range from 20 to 25 minutes while drying and concentration on the DryVap® with the DryDisk® took approximately 35 minutes.
Drinking water is an important resource that can provide significant exposure to humans if it is polluted. Analysis of source water, which may come from surface water, groundwater or treated water must be evaluated for possible contaminants to ensure regulatory compliance.1 Drinking water at the tap is often evaluated for contaminants that may be introduced through leaks in the pipes or pipe materials.
The purpose of this application note is to demonstrate the capabilities of the automated Horizon Technology solution when used for the analysis of EPA method 8061A phthalate ester compounds in surface and ground water. Method 8061A states gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) can be used as an alternative for compound confirmation for phthalate esters.