TSNAs, or tobacco-specific nitrosamines, are carcinogens found in tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. NNK (4 (methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone), NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol), and NNN (n-nitrosonornicotine) are the most commonly analyzed TSNAs. NNK has been seen to cause lung cancer in laboratory animals, NNAL is a metabolite of NNK, and NNN has been seen to cause esophageal cancer in laboratory animals. This proof of concept study focusses on NNN (n-nitrosonornicotine).
TSNAs can be difficult to accurately detect, as, like nicotine, there can be false positives for secondhand and third-hand contamination. Secondhand contamination, or secondhand smoke, causes non-smokers to test positive for TSNAs if the detection limits for the method are low. Third-hand contamination can be from test tubes, extraction media, pipette tips, or any number of items used throughout the sample extraction and analysis processes.
This proof of concept study focusses on:
But the supported liquid extraction methodology described is a also suitable for: